Facts you should know about the Dalai Lama Seal.

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1) Ruling lamas affixed their seals to official documents to make them valid. The seals had been given to them in turn by the Mongol Khan and the Manchu Emperors.

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2) The engraving on this seal of 1909 is in three scripts: (a) the three columns on the left and on the right are in ‘Phags-pa script which was devised in the 13th century by ‘Phags-pa Lama for Qubilai khan;

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3) (b) the next column on the left consists of the same inscription in Lantsa, an ornate Indo-Aryan script used for decorative purposes; and (c) the lines of small characters are proper Tibetan script.

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4) Freely translated, the inscription says: “Seal of the King of the powerful wish-granting (jewel), who is worshipped by all the gods and men, the Ocean-Lama (of the Buddha), who is the protector of all above earth and of all times,-¬†lord of the three worlds and the teaching of the Buddha (which came from) the Glorious Land (i.e. India).

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